PERMIAN PERIOD              295 - 249 Million Years Ago Edit


Fearsome Gorgonopsids clash in the Late Permian deserts of what is now Siberia.

The Permian Period was a time of great change. Climate patterns swung erratically over the duration of the Period, and despite being well-adapted for the changes, many Reptiles and especially Amphibians, could not cope with them. However, Reptiles were the best suited, and their losses were small in comparison with others; the Amphibians, animals that had thrived in the much wetter and much cooler Carboniferous Period, declined rapidly. Even more badly effected, were the Giant Arthropods and Insects of the Carboniferous Period – whole swamps turned to desert, and the monster-creepy-crawlies, simply perished. As for the Marine-Life, it to suffered. As the sea levels fell, coral reefs were exposed, and the living space for the once abundant waters of the Carboniferous began to empty. Ultimately, this Period represents a time of drying, and as the volcanic activity across the globe increased, the levels of greenhouse gases also increased. Sadly, this Period is best known for one event that almost finished off all complex life-forms on the planet. At the very end of the Period, the Great Permian Mass Extinction event took hold, and wiped out over 96-97% of all life on earth, including some of the Palaeozoic Eras’ most iconic groups. The last of the Sea-Scorpions, the last of the Trilobites, the last of the Therapsids (such as the Gorgonopsids on the background image) and the last of the many other forms of life, such as older types of corals, sponges and fish, all vanished from the pages of Prehistory. Not only did this event mark the end of the Permian Period, but also the prestigious Palaeozoic Era altogether. The Age of the Dinosaurs had a clean slate to find itself in command of, just 10-20 million years after the end of the Permian.


The Precambrian Super-Eon The Hadean Eon The Archaean Eon The Proterozoic Eon The Phanerozoic Eon The Palaeozoic Era The Cambrian Period The Ordovician Period The Silurian Period The Devonian Period The Carboniferous Period The Permian Period The Mesozoic Era The Triassic Period The Jurassic Period The Cretaceous Period The Cenozoic Era The Tertiary Period The Palaeocene Epoch The Eocene Epoch The Oligocene Epoch The Miocene Epoch The Pliocene Epoch The Quaternary Period The Pleistocene Epoch The Holocene Epoch